Word and Syllable Structure:
Proto content root words are generally disyllabic or trisyllabic.
Proto has eighteen consonant phonemes. No voicing or aspiration distinction occurs.
Nasals /m n ɲ ŋ/
Voiceless Plosives /p t c k ʔ/ < p t c k '>
Voiceless Fricatives /f s ʂ ɕ x h/
Approximants /ɹ l j w/
/ç/ and /ʎ/ only occur as allophones.
/m n ɲ ŋ p t c k ʔ f s ʂ ɕ x h ɹ l j w/
/h/ is realized as [ç] before /i/ and /u/
/ɹ/ and /l/ are realized as [ʎ] word initially.
Any consonant may occur initially, with the exceptions of /ŋ/, /ʔ/, and /x/. In addition, there are a number of consonant clusters that may occur initially.
Three sets of initial clusters may occur:
/p/ followed by /ɹ/, /l/, /j/, or /w/
/t/, /c/, /k/, /s/, or /ʂ/ followed by /m/, /n/, /ɹ/, /l/, /j/, or /w/.
/m n ɲ p t k c f s ʂ ɕ x h ɹ l j w/
/pɹ pl pj pw tm tn tɹ tl tj tw cm cn cɹ cl cj cw km kn kɹ kl kj kw sm sn sɹ sl sj sw ʂm ʂn ʂɹ ʂl ʂj ʂw hɹ/
The following cononants may occur as finals:
/m n ɲ ŋ ʔ s ʂ ɕ x h/
Proto has six short and six long monophthong and eight diphthong vowel phonemes.
Short /i e a ə u o/ < i e a ə u o>
Long /i: e: a: ə: u: o:/ < ii ee aa əə uu oo>
Dipthongs /ei ai ui oi iu eu au ou/ < ei ai ui oi iu eu au ou>
/i i: e e: a a: ə ə: u u: o o: ei ai ui oi iu eu au ou/
/ə/ is realized as [e] following /j/ and as [o] following /w/
/a/ is realized as [ä] word finally.
/e/ is realized as [ɜ] word finally.
/o/ is realized as [ɔ] word finally.
Syllables fall into one of three patterns: initial, medial, or final. Initials follow a ISV pattern, where I =initial consonant, S = sonorant (/m/, /n/, /ɹ/, /l/, /j/, or /w/), and V = vowel. Medials, when they occur, follow a I(S)V(F) pattern, where I = initial consonant, S = sonorant (/m/, /n/, /ɹ/, /l/, /j/, or /w/), V = vowel, and F = final consonant. Finals follow a C(S)V(F) pattern, where C = consonant, S = sonorant (/m/, /n/, /ɹ/, /l/, /j/, or /w/), and V =vowel.
Stress consists of dynamic accent (loudness). It falls regularly on final syllable. Both components of compound words are stressed, with stronger stress on the primary. Prosodic and empahtic stress also germinate the initial consonant of the emphasized word if it is a plosive.