Kadiman is a very regular mixed typological head-final language with nominative-accusative alignment.. It is primarily analytic/isolating, with some agglutinating inflection for noun derivation and on certain function words. All inflection is agglutinating and exclusively suffixing. Word order is strictly SOV/SV.
Nouns are generally people, animals, places, things, ideas, substances, or events which occur as the primary word of an argument. They consist of either a bare or derived root. Nouns may be derived by compounding nouns with other nouns, verbs, or adjectives. Nouns may also be derived from verbs, and sometimes from adjectives or other qualifiers. Nouns may also take semantic gender or number suffixes.
Compund nouns consist of a primary stem, which is always a noun, and one or more secondary elements, prefixed to the primary. The primary designates the larger set of which the noun is a part, and determines all grammatical elements. The secondary indicates the subset of which the noun is a part. Multiple secondaries may be applied, but rarely more than two. When multiple secondaries are used, each indicates a smaller subset in out to in order. Verbs and adjectives used as secondaries must always be in the nominalized form.
Action nominalization indicates that the verb is being used as a noun in general.
Instrument nominalization indicates that the verb is being used as an instrument of the action.
Location nominalization indicates that the verb is being used as a location of the action.
Product nominalization indicates that the verb is being used as a product or result of the action.
Adjective nominalization indicates that the adjective is being used as a noun in general. These take the same suffix as product nominalization.
Occupational nominalization indicates that the noun or verb is being used as an occupation, or for one who uses the noun or performes the action.
Noun derived adjectives are maked with -zig.
There is no grammatical gender/noun class system. However, in cases where semantic gender needs to be clarified, especially in animals and plants, a distinction is made by means of suffixes.
Number identifies nouns by amount.
Singular identifies one item.
Plural identifies more than two items.
Examples of Noun Derivation:
Fabrik - vt to make, create, particularly mass produce in a factory
Fabriken - making
Fabrika - factory
Fabrikan - factory tools and equipment
Fabrikum - mass produced product
Fabrikeir - factory worker
Bif - head of cattle
Bifo - bull
Bifa - cow
Bifi - steer
Skar - star
Skaraz - stars
Nominal phrases generally consist of an obligatory determiner, an adjective(s), an attitude/nuance particle, a noun or pronoun, position phrase, and a relative clause, in that order.
Determiners indicate reference of a noun or noun phrase in the context. Determiners may indicate whether the definiteness, proximity, possession, questions, or number or quantity of a noun.
Articles identify nouns according to their particularness, specificity, identifiableness, and/or uniqueness. Unless otherwise specified by use of the indefinite or negative, determiners other than articles are considered definite.
Indefinite identifies a noun which is not particular or specifically identifiable to the listener.
Definite identifies a noun which is particular and identifiable to the listener, usually one that has already been mentioned or is uniquely specified.
Negative identifies a noun which is lacking, absent, or doesn't exist.
Demonstratives are used to indicate physical distance between the argument, speaker, and listener.
Proximal identifies a noun located near the speaker.
Medial identifies a noun located near the listener.
Distal identifies a noun located away from both the speaker and listener.
Possessives indicate possession, composition, or origin.
Possession marks an argument as possession an argument.
Original indicates the location where the argument originates and belongs - man of Rome
Quantifiers identify nouns by amount.
Cardinal designates a number. It is unmarked.
Ordinal identifies a rank ordered number.
Distributive identifies taken separately and individually - each item, every item.
Paucal identifies a small quantity of an item.
Sufficiency identifies a quantity of just enough but not too much of an item.
Multal identifies a large quantity of an item.
Universal identifies all examples of an item.
Ordinal: number + -ten
Universal : zen
en felzen - a rock
de felzen - the rock
na felzen - no rock
si felzen - this rock
de hser der felzen - the duke's rock
en felzen del stien - a rock of the city
katen felzen - first rock
min felzen - every rock
maz felzenz - lots of rocks
zen felzenz - all rocks
Attitude/nuance particles are used to indicate the speakers attitude towards the argument.
Honorific indicates something that is highly respecred and honored.
Laudative indicates something that is praiseworthy, positive, appreciated, or othewise approved of.
Diminuitive indicates smallness. It may also indicate familiarity, intimacy, and/or affection.
Mirative indicates something that is unexpected, surprising, or funny.
Augmentative indicates largeness. It may also indicate a negative attitude.
Aversive indicates something that is being feared or otherwise avoided.
Pejorative indicates something that is negative, contemptable, or distasteful.
Second and third person pronouns distinguish for informal and formal.
1st Person: Mi
2nd Person: Du, Vu
3rd Person: Li, Sa
1st Person: Nus
2nd Person: Bouz, Sted
3rd Person: Laz, Saz
Interogative and Relative Pronouns:
Kisa - who
Sa - what
Poukei - why
Kan - when
Ajou - where
Komen - how
Komben - how many
Kel - which
Verbs and Verbal Phrases:
Verbs are activities, actions, events, situations, or states. They generally consist of a bare root. Verbal phrases consist of one or more verbs, usually followed by a temporal marker. These may also be followed by a voice particle and/or question particle. Verbs do not compound, but may be used serially. Serial verbs do not take individual temporal markers.
Tense indicates the location of an activity, action, event, situation, or state in time.
Past indicates activities, actions, events, situations, or states which occur before "now". "The sky was blue before."
Present indicates activities, actions, events, situations, or states which occur "now". "The sky is blue now."
Future indicates activities, actions, events, situations, or states which occur after "now". "The sky will be blue later."
Gnomic indicates activities, actions, events, situations, or states which occur at an unspecified time or always. "The sky is, always has been, and always will be blue".
Aspect indicates the relation of an activity, action, event, situation, or state to the flow of time. Aspect markers are suffixed to tense markers.
Habitual indicates an activity, action, event, situation, or state which is a habits, general reality, repeated, or unchanging. "I work on Saturday." It is unmarked.
Continuous indicates an ongoing activity, action, event, situation, or state. "I am wearing clothes."
Perfect indicates an activity, action, event, situation, or state, the result of which applies to the present situation. "I have lived in Hong Kong for a year (and still live here)."
Perfective indicates a completed action. Generally it is used with past tense, but when used in the present it indicates instantaneously occuring verbs . "I lived in Hong Kong for a year (but am now elsewhere)." "He snapped his fingers."
Mood indicates describe beliefs, attitudes, or obligations about activity, action, event, situation, or state about an activity, action, event, situation, or state. They may or may not to the flow of time..
Indicative indicates the speaker's certainty that the statement is true. It is the unmarked default. "You eat pizza."
Imperative indicates the speaker's direct command or demand that the statement to be made true. Imperative statements may drop the subject. "Eat pizza."
Directive indicates the speaker's requests and polite command that the statement to be made true. "Please eat pizza."
Propositive indiccates the speaker's suggestion or proposal for the statement to be made true. "Why don't you eat pizza?"
Hortative indiccates the speaker's encouragement or urging for the statement to be made true. "You should eat pizza."
Commissive indicates the speaker's promises or threats that the statement to be made true. "I swear you'll eat pizza, or else."
Subjunctive indicates the speaker's wish or desire for the statement to be true. "I wish you ate pizza.
Dubitative indicates the speaker's doubt or uncertainty that the statement is true. "It's doubtful you eat pizza."
Potential indicates the speaker considers the statement is likely, but not certainly, true. "You probably eat pizza'
Speculative indicates the speaker's speculation, assumption, or deduction that the statement is true. "It seems you eat pizza."
Hypothetical indicates the speaker considers the statement to be counterfactual but possible. "You don't eat pizza, but you could."
Conditional indicates some condition, usually counterfactual and hypothetical, that the statement depends on for being true. "If you were in Naples, you'd eat pizza."