/m n ŋ ŋ/ < m n nj ng>
/p t k/ < p t k>
/b d g/ < b d g>
/ts) dz) tʃ) dʒ)/
/f s ʃ x h/ < f s sh x h>
/v z/ < v z>
/ɹ j l/
/w/ < w>


/i e a u o/


/ei eu ai oi au ou/

Stress and Intonation

Stress consists of dynamic accent/loudness. Monosyllables are generally unstressed. In multi-syllablic words, grammatical stress is always on the final syllable. Vowels always keep their full quality, regardless of in whether a syllable is stressed or unstressed. General, the only last word in a phrase or sentence retains its full grammatical stress,while the other words in the phrase or sentence have a lesser degree of stress.

Emphatic stress, used to express contrast, reinforce emotion, or otherwise call attention to a specific word or element in a given context, falls on the first consonant-initial syllable.

Intonation (variation in pitch) is generally found over the final two syllables of a sentence. Declarative and imperative sentences generally have a flat intonation. Open/information questions have a falling intonation. And closed/yes-no questions have a rising intonation.